Science of Mould Illness
CIRS (Shoemaker)Biotoxins/Mycotoxins/MVOCSColonisation/AllergyWDBERMIHLA

Consensus Statements

  • Berndtson, K., McMahon, S., Ackerley, M., Rapaport, S., Gupta, S. & Shoemaker, R.C. (2015). Medically sound investigation and remediation of water-damaged buildings in cases of CIRS-WDB – Consensus statement – Pt 1. Center for research on biotoxin associated illnesses. Full text.
  • Schwartz, L., Weatherman, G., Schrantz, M., Spakes, W., Charlton, J., Berndtson, K. & Shoemaker, R. (2016). Indoor environmental professionals panel of surviving mold – consensus statement. Full text.

Peer Reviewed Science (Journals)

  • Shoemaker, R., Katz, D., Ackerley, M., Rapaport, S., McMahon, S., Berndtson, K. & Ryan, J. (2017). Intranasal VIP safely restores volume to multiple grey matter nuclei in patients with CIRS. Internal Medicine Review, (3)4. Full text.
  • Ryan, J.C. & Shoemaker. R.C. (2016). RNA-Seq on patients with chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS) treated with vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) shows a shift in metabolic state and innate immune functions that coincide with healing. Medical Research Archives, 4(7). doi: dx.doi.org/10.18103/mra.v4i7.862. Full text.
  • McMahon, S.W., Shoemaker, R.C. & Ryan, J.C. (2016). Reduction in forebrain parenchymal and cortical grey matter swelling across treatment groups in patients with inflammatory illness acquired following exposure to water-damaged buildings. Journal of neuroscience and clinical research, 2016, 1(1). Full text.
  • Bredesen D.E. (2016). Inhalational Alzheimer’s disease: an unrecognized – and treatable – epidemic. Aging, 8(2), 304-13. PMID 26870879, Full Text
  • Ryan, J.C., Wu, Q., & Shoemaker, R.C. (2015). Transcriptomic signatures in whole blood of patients who acquire a chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS) following an exposure to the marine toxin ciguatoxin. BMC med genomics, 2015, (8)15. doi: 10.1186/s12920-015-0089-x PMID 25889530
  • Shoemaker, R.C., House, D.E., & Ryan, J.C. (2014). Structural brain abnormalities in patients with inflammatory illness acquired following exposure to water-damaged buildings: A volumetric MRI study using NeuroQuant. Neurotoxicology and teratology, 45, 18-26. doi: 10.1016/j.ntt.2014.06.004, PMID: 24946038Full text
  • Shoemaker, R.C., House, D.E., & Ryan, J.C. (2013). Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) corrects chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS) acquired following exposure to water-damaged buildings. Health, 2013, 3, 396-401. Full text
  • Shoemaker, R.C., House, D.E., & Ryan, J.C. (2010). Defining the neurotoxin derived illness chronic ciguatera using markers of chronic systemic inflammatory disturbances: a case/control study. Neurotoxicology and teratology, 32(6), 633-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ntt.2010.05.007 PMID 20685390, Full text
  • Shoemaker, R.C., Giclas, P, Crowder, C, House, D.E., & Glovsky, M. (2008).  Complement split products C3a and C4a are early markers of acute lyme disease in tick bite patients in the United States. International archives of allergy and immunology, 146(3), 255-61. doi: 10.1159/000116362 PMID 18270493Full text
  • Shoemaker, R.C., Hudall, H.K., House, D.E., Van Kempen, A., & Pakes, G. (2006). Atovaquone plus cholestyramine in patients coinfected with Babesia microti and Borrelia burgdorferi refractory to other treatment. Advances in therapy, 23(1), 1-11PMID 16644602Full text
  • Shoemaker, R.C., & House, D.E. (2006). Sick building syndrome (SBS) and exposure to water-damaged buildings: time series study, clinical trial and mechanisms. Neurotoxicology and teratology, 28(5), 573-88. PMID 17010568Full text
  • Shoemaker, R.C. & House, D.E. (2004). A time-series study of sick building syndrome: chronic, biotoxin-associated illness from exposure to water-damaged buildings. Neurotoxicology and teratology, 27(1), 29-46. PMID 15681119Full text
  • Shoemaker, R.C. (2001). Residential and recreational acquisition of possible estuary-associated syndrome: a new approach to successful diagnosis and treatment. Environmental health perspectives, 109 (suppl. 5), 791-6. PMID PMC1240613, Full text

Conference Peer Review

  • Shoemaker, R., McMahon, S., Ryan, J., Ackerley, M., DiTulio, M., Berndtson, B., Heyman, A. & Jaffe, R. (2015). Correlation of volumetric brain imaging with Western blot testing for Lyme Disease. Poster session. NorVect conference, 2015. Summary
  • Shoemaker, R.C. & Maizel, M. (2008). Innate immunity, MR spectroscopy, HLA DR, TGF beta-1, VIP and capillary hypoperfusion define acute and chronic human illness acquired following exposure to water-damaged buildings. International healthy buildings. Full text
  • Shoemaker, R.C., Hudnell K.H., House, D.E. & Domenico, P. (2003). Association of nasal carriage of methicillin resistant and multiple antibiotic resistant coagulase negative staphylococci species with deficiency of alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: implication for expanded treatment options. American society of microbiology, 2003. Full text
  • Shoemaker, R.C. (2003). Linkage disequilibrium in alleles of HLA DR: differential association with susceptibility to chronic illness following exposure to biologically produced neurotoxins. American society of microbiology. 2003. Full text

Books and Newsletters

  • Shoemaker, R.C. & Maziel, M.S. (2009). Exposure to interior environments of water-damaged buildings causes a CFS-like illness in pediatric patients: a case/control study. Bulletin of the IACFS/ME 2009, 17(2).  Full text
  • Shoemaker, S., Rash, J. & Simon, E. (2003). Sick building syndrome in water damaged buildings: generalization of the chronic biotoxin-associated illness paradigm to indoor toxigenic-fungi exposure. Bioaerosols, fungi, bacteria, mycotoxins and human health. Johanning, E (editor). Chapter Text

Patents

  • Shoemaker, R., & Ryan, J. (2014). US Patent No. 20,140,046,143 A. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Google patents
  • Shoemaker, R., & Hudnell, H. (2003). Us Patent No. 20,030,219,400 A1. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Google patents

Complete Works

  • Visit Surviving Mold for the complete library of scientific papers authored or co-authored by Dr. Ritchie Shoemaker.

Lists of references

  • Thrasher, J.D. & Grant, I.H. (9, 2015). Mom’s Aware. PDF.

General (Thrasher, Hope)

  • Thrasher, J.D. (2016). Fungi, bacteria, nano-particulates, mycotoxins and human health in water-damaged indoor environments. Journal of community and public health nursing 2016, 2(2). doi: dx.doi.org/10.4172/jcphn.1000115
  • Morris, G., Berk, M., Walder, K. & Maes, M. (2015).The putative role of viruses, bacteria, and chronic fungal biotoxin exposure in the genesis of intractable fatigue accompanied by cognitive and physical disability. Molecular neurobiology. doi: 10.1007/s12035-015-9262-7 PMID 26081141Full text
  • Guilford, F.T. & Hope, J. (2014). Deficient Glutathione in the Pathophysiology of Mycotoxin-Related Illness. Toxins, 6(2), 608–623. doi:  10.3390/toxins6020608 PMID PMC3942754
  • Hope, J. (2013). A Review of the mechanism of injury and treatment approaches for illness resulting from exposure to water damaged buildings, mold, and mycotoxins. The scientific world journal, 2013. Full text
  • Hooper, D., Bolton, V., Guilford, F. & Straus, D. (2009). Mycotoxin detection in human samples from patients exposed to environmental molds. International journal of molecular sciences, 10(4), 1465–75. doi: 10.3390/ijms10041465 PMID 19468319
  • Campbell, A.W., Thrasher, J.D., Gray, M.R. & Vojandi, A. (2004). Mold and Mycotoxins: Effects on the Neurological and Immune Systems in Humans. Advances in applied microbiology, 55, 375-406. PMID 15350803Full text
  • Gray, M., Thrasher, J., Crago, R., Madison, R., Arnold, L., Campbell, W. & Vojdani, A. (2003). Mixed mold mycotoxicosis: immunological changes in humans following exposure in water-damaged buildings. Archives of environmental health, 58(7), 410-420. PMID 15143854

MVOCS

  • Bennett, J.W. & Inamdar, A.A. (2015). Are some fungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mycotoxins? Toxins, 7(9), 3785-804. doi: 10.3390/toxins7093785 PMID 26402705
  • Hokeness, K., Kratch, J., Nadolny, C., Aicardi, K., Reid, C.W. (2014). The effects of fungal volatile organic compounds on bone marrow stromal cells. Canadian journal of microbiology, 60(1),1-4. doi: 10.1139/cjm-2013-0708 PMID 24392920
  • Betancourt, D., Krebs, K., Moore, S. & Martin, S. (2013). Microbial volatile organic compound emissions from Stachybotrys chartarum growing on gypsum wallboard and ceiling tile. BMC microbiology, 13, 283. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-13-283 PMID PMC4234204
  • Korpi, A., Järnberg, J. & Pasanen, A. (2009). Microbial volatile organic compounds. Critical reviews in toxicology, 39(2), 139-193.  doi: 10.1080/10408440802291497 PMID 19204852

Brewer

  • Brewer, J., Hooper, D. & Muralidhar, S. (2015). Intranasal antifungal therapy in patients with chronic illness associated with mold and mycotoxins: an observational analysis. Global journal of medical research: K interdisciplinary, 15(1). Full text
  • Brewer, J., Thrasher, J. & Hooper, D. (2013). Chronic illness associated with mold and mycotoxins: is naso-sinus fungal biofilm the culprit? Toxins, 24, 6(1), 66-80. doi: 10.3390/toxins6010066  PMID 24368325
  • Brewer, J., Thrasher, J., Straus, D., Madison, R. & Hooper, D. (2013). Detection of mycotoxins in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Toxins, 11, 5(4), 605-17. doi: 10.3390/toxins5040605 PMID 23580077

Chronic Rhinosinusitis

  • Feazel, L. M., Robertson, C. E., Ramakrishnan, V. R., & Frank, D. N. (2012). Microbiome Complexity and Staphylococcus aureus in Chronic Rhinosinusitis.The Laryngoscope, 122(2), 467–472. doi: doi.org/10.1002/lary.22398 PMID PMC3398802

Allergy

  • Edmondson, D., Barrios, C., Brasel, T., Straus, D., Kurup V., & Fink J. (2009). Immune response among patients exposed to molds. International journal of molecular sciences, 12, 5471-84. doi: 10.3390/ijms10125471 PMID 20054481
  • Andersen, B., Dosen, I., Lewinska, A.M. & Nielsen, K.F. Pre-contamination of new gypsum wallboard with potentially harmful fungal species. Indoor air, 31 March 2016. doi: 10.1111/ina.12298 PMID 26970063
  • Cho, S.J., Cox-Ganser, J.M. & Park, J.H. (2016). Observational scores of dampness and mold associated with measurements of microbial agents and moisture in three public schools. Indoor Air, 26(2), 168-178. doi: doi:10.1111/ina.12191 PMID 25650175
  • Adams, R., Miletto, M., Taylor, J. & Bruns, T. (2013). The diversity and distribution of fungi on residential surfaces. PLoS One, 8(11), e78866.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078866 PMID PMC3815347
  • Haleem Khan AA1, Mohan Karuppayil S.. (2012). Fungal pollution of indoor environments and its management. Saudi journal biological sciences, 19(4):405-26. doi: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2012.06.002 PMID 23961203
  • Andersen, B., Frisvad, J., Søndergaard, I., Rasmussen, I. & Larsen, L. (2011). Associations between fungal species and water-damaged building materials. Applied and environmental microbiology. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02513-10  PMID PMC3131638
  • Chester, A.C. & Levine, P.H. (1994). Concurrent sick building syndrome and chronic fatigue syndrome: epidemic neuromyasthenia revisited. Clinical infectious diseases, 18 Suppl 1:S43-8, PMID 8148452
  • Kettleson, E.M., Adhikari, A., Vesper, S., Coombs, K., Indugula, R. & Reponen, T. (2015). Key determinants of the fungal and bacterial microbiomes in homes. Environmental research, 2015 April, 138, 130-5. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2015.02.003 PMID 25707017
  • Vesper, S. (2011). Traditional mould analysis compared to a DNA-based method of mould analysis. Critical reviews in microbiology, 37(1), 15-24. doi: 10.3109/1040841X.2010.506177 PMID 20874612, Full Text
  • Vesper, S., Wakefield, J., Ashley, P., Cox, D., Dewalt, G. & Friedman, W. (2011). Geographic distribution of Environmental Relative Moldiness Index molds in USA homes. Journal of environmental and public health, 2011, 242457, doi: 10.1155/2011/242457 PMID 21776436
  • Vesper, S., McKinstry, C., Bradham, K., Ashley, P., Cox, D., Dewalt, G. & Lin, K. (2009). Screening tools to estimate mold burdens in homes. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 51(1), 80-6.  doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e31818dc41e PMID 19136876
  • Vesper, S., McKinstry, C., Haugland, R., Wymer, L., Bradham, K., Ashley, P., Cox, D., Dewalt, G. & Friedman, W. (2007). Development of an Environmental Relative Moldiness index for US homes. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 49(8), 829-33. PMID 17693779

Lyme (HLA DR4/4-3-53)

  • Nigorivc, L.E., & Thompson, K.M. (2007). The Lyme vaccine: a cautionary tale. Epidemiology and infection, 131(5), PMID PMC2870557
  • Steere, A.C., Klitz, W., Drouin, E.E., Falk, B.A., Kwok, W.W., Nepom, G.T. & Baxter-Lowe, L.A. (2006). Antibiotic-refractory Lyme arthritis is associated with HLA-DR molecules that bind a Borrelia burgdorferi peptide. The journal of experimental medicine, 203(4),961-71, PMID 16585267
  • Steere, A.C., Gross, D., Meyer, A.L. & Huber, B.T. (2001). Autoimmune mechanisms in antibiotic treatment-resistant lyme arthritis. Journal of autoimmunity, 16(3),263-8,  PMID 11334491
  • Gross, D.M., Forsthuber, T., Tary-LehmanM., Etling, C., Ito, K., Nagy, Z.A., Field, J.A., Steere, A.C. & Huber, B.T. Identification of LFA-1 as a candidate autoantigen in treatment-resistant Lyme arthritis. Science, 281(5377),703-6, PMID 9685265
  • Kalish, R.A., Leong, J.M., & Steere, A.C. (1993). Association of treatment-resistant chronic Lyme arthritis with HLA-DR4 and antibody reactivity to OspA and OspB of Borrelia burgdorferi. Infection and immunity, 61(7):2774-9 PMID 7685738

Allergy

  • Knutsen, A.P., Vijay, H.M., Kariuki, B., Santiago, L.A., Graff, R., Wofford, J.D. & Shah, M.R.. (2010) Association of IL-4RA single nucleotide polymorphisms, HLA-DR and HLA-DQ in children with Alternaria-sensitive moderate-severe asthma. Clinical and molecular allergy, 18(8), 5:5, doi: 10.1186/1476-7961-8-5 PMID 20298583
  • Knutsen, A.P., Vijay, H.M., Kumar, V., Kariuki, B., Santiago, L.A., Graff, R., Wofford, J.D. & Shah, M.R.. (2010). Mold-sensitivity in children with moderate-severe asthma is associated with HLA-DR and HLA-DQ. Allergy, 65(11), 1367-75, doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2010.02382.x PMID 20486920
  • Schubert, M.S., Hutcheson, P.S., Graff, R.J., Santiago, L. & Slavin, R.G. (2004). HLA-DQB1 *03 in allergic fungal sinusitis and other chronic hypertrophic rhinosinusitis disorders. The journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 114(6), 1376-83, PMID 15577839
  • Lara-Marquez, M.L., Yunis, J.J., Layrisse, Z., Ortega, F., Carvallo-Gil, E., Montagnani, S., Makhatadze, N.J., Pocino, M., Granja, C. & Yunis, E. (1999). Immunogenetics of atopic asthma: association of DRB1*1101 DQA1*0501 DQB1*0301 haplotype with Dermatophagoides spp.-sensitive asthma in a sample of the Venezuelan population. Clinical and experimental allergy, 29(1), 69-71, PMID 10051703

 

 

Biomarkers

C3aC4aLeptinMARCoNSMSHMMP-9NeuroQuantTGF-b1VCSVEGFVIP
Coming Soon

  • Pągowska-Klimek, I., Świerzko, A.S., Michalski, M., Głowacka, E., Szala-Poździej, A., Sokołowska, A., Moll, M., Krajewski, W.R., Romak, J. & Cedzyński, M.. (2015). Activation of the lectin pathway of complement by cardiopulmonary bypass contributes to the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome after pediatric cardiac surgery. Clinical and experimental immunology. doi: 10.1111/cei.12763 PMID 26703090
  • Panelius, J. & Meri, S. (2015). Complement system in dermatological diseases – fire under the skin. Frontiers in medicine, 29(2), 3, doi: 10.3389/fmed.2015.00003 PMID 25688346
  • Bennett, S., Grant, M., Creese, A.J., Mangialasche, F., Cecchetti, R., Cooper, H.J., Mecocci, P. & Aldred, S. Plasma levels of complement 4a protein are increased in Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease and associated disorders, 26(4), 329-34. doi: 10.1097/WAD.0b013e318239dcbd PMID 22052466
  • Nijs, .J, Nees, A., Paul, L., De Kooning, M., Ickmans, K., Meeus, M. & Van Oosterwijck, J. (2014). Altered immune response to exercise in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis: a systematic literature review. Exercise immunological review, 20,94-116. PMID 24974723
  • Kwon, O., Kim, K.W. & Kim, M.S.. (2016). Leptin signalling pathways in hypothalamic neurons. Cellular and molecular life sciences, Jan 19, 1-21. PMID 26786898
  • Hornig, .1, Montoya, J.G,, Klimas, N.G., Levine, S., Felsenstein, D., Bateman, L., Peterson, D.L., Gottschalk, C.G., Schultz, A.F., Che ,X., Eddy, M.L., Komaroff, A.L. & Lipkin, W.I. (2015). Distinct plasma immune signatures in ME/CFS are present early in the course of illness. Science advances, 2015 Feb;1(1). pii: e1400121. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1400121 PMID 26079000
  • Milaneschi, Y., Lamers, F., Bot, M., Drent, M.L. & Penninx, B.W. (2015). Leptin dysregulation is specifically associated with major depression with atypical features: evidence for a mechanism connecting obesity and depression. Biological psychiatry. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.10.023 PMID 26742925
  • Stringer, E.A., Baker, K.S., Carroll, I.R., Montoya, J.G., Chu, L, Maecker, H.T. & Younger, J.W. Daily cytokine fluctuations, driven by leptin, are associated with fatigue severity in chronic fatigue syndrome: evidence of inflammatory pathology. Journal of translation medicine, 16(5), 583-9. doi: 10.1186/1479-5876-11-93 PMID PMC3637529
  • Metcalf, L., McGregor, N. & Roberts, T.(2004). Membrane damaging toxins from coagulase-negative staphylococcus are associated with self-reported temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of chronic fatigue syndrome, 12(3) 25-43. doi: 10.1300/J092v12n03_03
  • Richards, R., McGregor, N. & Roberts, T. (2004). Association between oxidative damage markers and self-reported temporomandibular dysfunction symptoms in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Journal of chronic fatigue syndrome, 12(3), 45-51. doi: 0.1300/J092v12n03_04
  • Singh, M. & Mukophadhyay, K. (2014). Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone – an ermging anti-inflammatory antimicrobial peptide (Review). BioMed research international, 2014. doi: 10.1155/2014/874610 PMID 25140322
  • Taylor, A.W & Namba, K. (2001). In vitro induction of CD25+CD4+regulatory T cells by the neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (a MSH). Immunology and cell biology, 79(4), 358–367. PMID 11488983
  • Bauer, A.T., Burgers, H.F., Tamer Rabie, T. & Marti, H.H. (2010). Matrix metalloproteinase-9 mediates hypoxia-induced vascular leakage in the brain via tight junction rearrangement. Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism, 30(4), 837-848. doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2009.248 PMID PMC2949161
  • Yan, A., Yan R., Spinale, F., Afzal, R., Gunasinghe, H., Arnold, M., Demers, C., McKelvie, R. & Liu, P. (2006). Plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9 level is correlated with left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction in patients with heart failure. Journal of cardiac failure, 12(7), 514-19. PMID 16952784
  • Bergsland, N., Horakova, D., Dwyer, M.G., Dolezal, O., Seidl, Z.K., Vaneckova, M., Krasensky, J., Havrdova, E. & Zivadinov, R. (2012). Subcortical and cortical gray matter atrophy in a large sample of patients with clinically isolated syndrome and early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. American journal of neuroradiology, 33(8), 1573-8. doi: 10.3174/ajnr.A3086 PMID 22499842
  • Almeida, O.P., Burton E.J., McKeith, I., Gholkar, A., Burn, D. & O’Brien J.T. (2003). MRI study of caudate nucleus volume in Parkinson’s disease with and without dementia with lewy Bodies and alzheimer’s Disease. Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders, 16(2), 57–63. doi: 10.1159/000070676
  • Bar-Klein, G., Cacheaux, L.P., Kamintsky, L., Prager, O., Weissberg, I., Schoknecht, K., Cheng, P., Kim, S.Y., Wood, L., Heinemann, U., Kaufer, D. & Friedman, A. (2014). Losartan prevents acquired epilepsy via TGF-β signaling suppression. Annals of neurology, 75(6), 864-75. doi: 10.1002/ana.24147 PMID 24659129
  • Beck, K. & Schachtrup, C. (2011). Vascular damage in the central nervous system: a multifaceted role for vascular-derived TGF-β. Cell and tissue research, 347(1), 187-201. doi: 10.1007/s00441-011-1228-0 PMID 21850492
  • Lee, S.B., Kanasaki, K. & Kalluri, R. (2009). Circulating TGF-beta1 as a reliable biomarker for chronic kidney disease progression in the African-American population. Kidney international, 76(1):10-2. doi: 10.1038/ki.2009.130, PMID 19528989
  • Howel, J. & McAnulty, R. (2006). TGF-beta: its role in asthma and therapeutic potential. Current drug targets, 7(5), 547-65. doi: 10.2174/138945006776818692 PMID 16719766.
  • Campistol, J.M., Iñigo, P., Jimenez, W., Lario, S., Clesca, P.H., Oppenheimer, F. & Rivera, F. (1999). Losartan decreases plasma levels of TGF-beta1 in transplant patients with chronic allograft nephropathy. Kidney international, 56(2):714-9. PMID 10432413
  • Hudnell, H.K. (2005). Chronic biotoxin-associated illness: multiple-system symptoms, a vision deficit, and effective treatment. Neurotoxicology and teratology, 27(5), 733-43. PMID: 16102938
  • Hudnell, H.K., Skalik,I, Otto, D., House, D., Subrt, P. & Sram, R. (1996). Visual contrast sensitivity deficits in Bohemian children. Neurotoxicology, 17 (3-4), 615-28. PMID 9086482
  • Schreiber, J.S., Hudnell, H.K., Geller, A.M., House, D.E., Aldous, K.M., Force, M.S., Langguth, K., Prohonic, E.J., & Parker J.C. (2002). Apartment residents’ and day care workers’ exposures to tetrachloroethylene and deficits in visual contrast sensitivity. Environmental health perspectives, 110(7), 655-64. PMID 12117642
  • Hudnell, H.K., House, D., Schmid, J., Koltai, D., Stopford, W., Wilkins, J., Savitz, D.A., Swinker, M., & Music, S. (2001). Human visual function in the North Carolina clinical study on possible estuary-associated syndrome. Journal of toxicology and environmental health, 61(8), 575-94. PMID 11339332
  • Landi, A., Broadhurst, D., Vernon, S.D., Tyrrell, D.L. & Houghton, M. (2015). Reductions in circulating levels of IL-16, IL-7 and VEGF-A in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome. Cytokine, 78:27-36. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2015.11.018 PMID 26615570
  • Argaw, A.T., Asp, L., Zhang, J., Navrazhina, K., Pham, T., Mariani, J.N., Mahase, S., Dutta, D.J., Seto, J., Kramer, E.G., Ferrara, N., Sofroniew, M.V. & John, G.R. (2012). Astrocyte-derived VEGF-A drives blood-brain barrier disruption in CNS inflammatory disease. The Journal of clinical investigation, 122(7), 2454-68. doi: 10.1172/JCI60842 PMID PMC3386814
  • Ganea, D., Hooper, K.M. & Kong, W. (2015). The neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide: direct effects on immune cells and involvement in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Acta Physioligica (Oxford), 213(2),442-52. doi: 10.1111/apha.12427. PMID 25422088

Image credit: Bigstock.com